[uClinux-dev] C++ code size problem

Van Rafelghem, Dominique VanRafelghemD at intheairnet.com
Mon Mar 24 12:29:29 EST 2003


Thanks for the info.  I guess using printf's will work for now, as for using
STL on the ColdFire it probably isn't going to be easy due to the frequent
memory allocation and deallocation.

I will look into writing my own STL templates also.  I don't know if you're
willing or able to share you're STL classes you have developed, but any
hints would be appreciated.


-----Original Message-----
From: Michael Caisse [mailto:mcaisse at allweatherinc.com]
Sent: Monday, March 24, 2003 8:45 AM
To: uclinux-dev at uclinux.org
Subject: Re: [uClinux-dev] C++ code size problem

Dominique -

This may not be too helpful, but adding wide character support is going 
to increase your binary size considerably. Using iostreams will also 
greatly increase your binary size. There are many constructs in C++ that 
are quite handy and require little or no memory overhead. The key with 
C++ in an "embedded" application is to know what the footprint and cycle 
impacts are of varying constructs and to weigh them with their coding 

I have created a group of STL similar collections such as the deque for 
embedded systems. They are templated classes that don't rely on dynamic 
memory allocation but instead use placement new. As a result they are 
somewhat limited but can be used without an OS and still provide the 
coding ease of STL containers.

If your application doesn't need wide character support, you should 
remove the dependencies for it. For debugging purposes don't use 
iostreams, stick with printf to keep the memory footprint smaller.

michael caisse

Van Rafelghem, Dominique wrote:

> Hi,
> I am currently writing some code to check out uClinux on a ColdFire 
> processor.  The test platform I am using is the Motorola M5272C3 demo 
> board.  I am using the uClinux-dist-20030305.tar.gz kernel and the 
> m68k-elf-tools-20030314.  One change I've made to the uClinux 
> configuration is to allow wide characters as I was getting compilation 
> problems with my C++ code when I didn't have wide characters turned on 
> in the uClibc configuration.
> I wrote a simple C++ programs that instantiates a class and uses an 
> STL vector container class.  The code size jumps tremendously when I 
> include the STL stuff.  But when I add a cout statement using the 
> iostreams header file the code size of my application jumps from ~ 100 
> kbytes to ~400 kbytes.  This is a huge jump in code size and 
> unfortunately I can't run this on the demo board as it crashes 
> complaining that it doesn't have enough memory.
> The following is a my build script that I am using to build the 
> application:
> # script start
> m68k-elf-g++ -m5307 -DCONFIG_COLDFIRE -Os -g -fomit-frame-pointer 
> -m5307 -DCONFIG_COLDFIRE  -Dlinux -D__linux__ -Dunix -D__uClinux__ 
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/lib/uClibc/include \
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/lib/libm \
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/lib/libcrypt_old \
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist -fno-builtin 
> -msep-data \
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/linux-2.4.x/include

> -c -o testapp.o testapp.cpp
> m68k-elf-strip --strip-debug testapp.o
> m68k-elf-g++ -m5307 -DCONFIG_COLDFIRE -Os -g -fomit-frame-pointer 
> -m5307 -DCONFIG_COLDFIRE  -Dlinux -D__linux__ -Dunix -D__uClinux__ 
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/lib/uClibc/include \
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/lib/libm \
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/lib/libcrypt_old \
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist \
> -fno-builtin -msep-data 
> -I/home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/linux-2.4.x/include \
> -mapcs-26 -Wl,-elf2flt -Wl,-move-rodata -nostartfiles 
> /home/VanRafelghemD/uClinux-20030305/uClinux-dist/lib/uClibc/lib/crt0.o \
> -o testapp testapp.o -lc -lgcc
> #script end
> This is the code I am compiling:
> // start C++ code
> //#include <iostream>
> #include <vector>
> #include <stdio.h>
> using namespace std;
> class Test
> {
>         public:
>                 Test(int TestNo);
>                 int storeTestNo(void);
>                 ~Test();
>         private:
>                 std::vector<int> v;
>                 int m_TestNo;
> };
> Test::Test(int TestNo) : m_TestNo(TestNo)
> {
>         printf("Test no %d, constructed\n", m_TestNo);
>         v.reserve(80);
> }
> Test::~Test()
> {
>         printf("Test no %d, destroyed\n", m_TestNo);
> }
> int Test::storeTestNo(void)
> {
>         v.push_back(m_TestNo);
>         printf("Test no %d stored in v\n", m_TestNo);
>         return v.size();
> }
> int main(void)
> {
>         Test * Testp = new Test(1);
>         int size = Testp->storeTestNo();
>         printf("vector size is %d\n", size);
> //      cout << "cool" << endl;
>         delete Testp;
> }
> // end C++ code
> This code snippet has the cout and iostream header file commented 
> out.  As is this application will be ~100 kbytes which is huge for 
> what it does.  But when you remove the comments from the iostream 
> header and the cout statement the code size jumps to 400 kbytes.  When 
> I compile the same code on my linux box using gcc the code size of the 
> non-cout file is 25 kbytes, with cout the code size is 26 kbytes.  
> Does anyone have any idea why the m68k-elf-g++ code is so large and is 
> there any way to reduce this code size?  Any help with this would be 
> greatly appreciated.
> Dominique

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